General surgery

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagusstomach, small bowel, colonliver,pancreasgallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local reference patterns). They also deal with diseases involving the skinbreastsoft tissue, and hernias.Laparoscopic surgery

Main article: Laparoscopic surgery

This is a relatively new specialty dealing with minimal access techniques using cameras and small instruments inserted through 0.3 to 1 cm incisions. Robotic surgery is now evolving from this concept (see below). Gallbladders, appendices, and colons can all be removed with this technique. Hernias are now repaired mostly laparoscopically. Mostbariatric surgery is performed laparoscopically.[citation needed] General surgeons that are trained today are expected to be proficient in laparoscopic procedures.